Kamaran Mohammad Palani is a lecturer in IR at Salahaddin University-Erbil, and is currently completing his PhD thesis in international security at Leiden University. He holds an MA in Politics and International Relations (Global Security) at Keele University in the UK. He has worked for various local and international NGOs and research centres, including MERI, Iraq Studies in Beirut, the Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, Al Mesalla, Peace and Freedom Organization in Kurdistan and PAX. He was also involved in a research project sponsored by the University of New York on how social preferences operate within security forces involved in the war against terror. His research interests include de facto statehood in the international system, internal displacement and return, post-war security issues, and state-building in Iraq and the Kurdistan Region.